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辽河油田破解稠油和超稠油开采?#38469;?#38590;题

3个绝招提升稠油采收率

中国机械工业联合会机经网  发?#38469;?#38388;:2019-06-05 11:14:45  来源:经济日报


“世界稠油看中国,中国稠油看辽河”。经过多年攻坚,中国石油辽河油田已掌握一系列国内领先、国际一流的中深层稠油、超稠油开采?#38469;酢?#25130;至去年年底,辽河油田已连续33年实现稳产原油千万吨。

   “世界稠油看中国,中国稠油看辽河”。经过多年攻坚,中国石油辽河油田已掌握一系列国内领先、国际一流的中深层稠油、超稠油开采?#38469;酢?#25130;至去年年底,辽河油田已连续33年实现稳产原油千万吨。

  稠油油藏具有埋藏深、压力高、黏度大等特点,被称为“不能流动的石油?#20445;?#30446;前世界剩余石油资源70%为稠油。辽河油田的科研工作者反复研究试验,掌握了蒸汽辅助重力泄油(SAGD)和蒸汽驱、火驱这3个“绝?#23567;保?#30772;解了稠油和超稠油开采?#38469;?#36825;一世界性难题,实现稠油蒸汽驱先?#38469;?#39564;区采收率达到65%、SAGD先?#38469;?#39564;区采收率66%以上、边水稠油油藏火驱采收率60%以上。

  辽河油田公司开发事业部经理于天忠告诉经济日报记者,辽河油田在开发方式转变过程中尝到了3个“绝?#23567;?#24102;来的“甜头?#20445;?#36824;将进一步推广应用,今年将再安排新转井组73个,累计达到681个。

  “绝?#23567;?#19968;,“蒸汽驱”大幅提高中深层稠油采收率。辽河油田齐40块蒸汽驱作为中国石油股份公司10项重大试验项目之一,于2008年3月全部转驱完成,实现汽驱井组150个。在世界上首次实现中深层稠油蒸汽驱工业化生产,大幅提高最终采收率。

  在开发过程中,针对齐40块稠油油藏特点,逐步形成了蒸汽腔描述?#38469;酢?#24320;发效果分类评价?#38469;?#31561;一系列增油稳产开发?#38469;酢?#25130;至目前,累计完成商品量658.6万吨,实现销售收入185亿元以上。

  “绝?#23567;?#20108;,SAGD有效提高超稠油采收率。SAGD?#38469;?#26159;用300℃左?#19994;?#33976;汽将不流动的超稠油熔化,让它流动起来,然后用水平井采出来。重力泄油的过程形象地说,就是给油层“蒸桑拿”。这一?#38469;?#33258;2006年开展先?#38469;?#39564;,一路攻克生产各?#26041;?#30340;?#38469;?#38590;题,使单井日产油从初期的20吨上升到90吨以上,采收率可达60%,是常规蒸汽采收的2至3倍。

  在SAGD开发建设过程中,辽河油田坚持自主创新,创建了驱泄复合开发理论,确立了动态调控先进理念,形成了室内三维物理模拟?#38469;酢?#38548;夹层精细刻画?#38469;?#31561;7项SAGD油藏工程配?#20934;际酰?#22343;处于国内领先水平,突破了SAGD应用油藏埋深界限,为世界SAGD开发?#38469;?#25299;宽了应用渠道。

  SAGD从最初探索试验期的8个井组,发展到今天的65个井组,包括15口SAGD百吨井,成为支撑辽河油田?#20013;?#31283;产的重要力量。

  “绝?#23567;?#19977;,“火驱”开发后期热力采油。火驱是一种在油层内产生热量的热力采油方法,具有适用范围广、驱油效率高、成本低廉等特点。

  经过10余年科研攻关,辽河油田建成了国内首个百万级注气站和国内最大的火驱试验基地。依托国家科技重大专项示范工程,科研人员开展室内物模实验350组、数?#30340;?#25311;千余次、矿场试验5项,?#27426;?#23436;善稠油火驱?#38469;酰?#21462;得多项?#38469;?#21019;新。目前,辽河油田在4个区块推广应用141个火驱井组,年产油31万吨。

  科研人员一方面创新室内物模?#38469;酰?#25581;示了火驱核心作用机理,另一方面还创新了火驱设计方法,打破了国外油藏应用局限。原创了适合国内复杂稠油油藏火驱设计方法,在油藏类型、油品性?#23454;?#26041;面实现7项跨越,采收率由27%提高到55%。此外,还突破了高温点火?#38469;酰?#23454;现千米以下油层点火。(记者 张?#26159;?通讯员 张涛)

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